About Gender and Development

(1) ANDROGYNOUS – refers to a person whose qualities and characteristics are a combination of those traditionally associated with a man and a woman;

(2) ASEXUAL – refers to a person who is not physically and sexually attracted to anyone but has the same emotional needs as everybody;

(3) BARANGAY PROTECTION ORDERS (BPOs) – refer to the protection order issued by the Punong Barangay ordering the perpetrator to desist from committing acts;


(4) BISEXUAL – refers to a person who is emotionally, physically and sexually attracted to those of the same or opposite sex/gender;


(5) CATCALLING – refers to unwanted remarks directed towards a person, commonly done in the form of wolf-whistling and misogynistic, transphobic, homophobic, and sexist slurs;


(6) CHILDREN – refers to those who are below eighteen (18) years of age or over but are unable to fully take care of themselves or protect themselves from abuse, neglect, cruelty, exploitation, or discrimination because of a physical or mental disability or condition;


(7) CISGENDER – refers to a person whose gender reflects their sex assigned at birth;


(8) DEVELOPMENT – refers to the improvement of the quality of life of all regardless of age, sex, gender, ethnicity, race, creed and religion. It is characterized by an enrichment and sustainable utilization of the resources of the country and freedom from dependency. It shall be sustainable, equitable and gender responsive.


(9) DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN – refers to any gender-based distinction, exclusion, or restriction which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women in all aspects, irrespective of their status;


(10) FEMININE – refers to a person who has qualities and characteristics which are traditionally associated with a woman;


(11) FISHER FOLK – refers to those directly or indirectly engaged in taking, culturing or processing fishery or aquatic resources. These include, but are not to be limited to, women engaged in fishing in municipal waters, coastal and marine areas, women workers in commercial fishing and aquaculture, vendors and processors of fish and coastal products, and subsistence products such as shell-gatherers, managers and producers of mangrove resources and other related producers;


(12) FOREIGN WORKERS – refer to Filipinos who are to be engaged or have been engaged in remunerated activity in a State of which they are not legal residents, whether documented or undocumented;


(13) GAD FOCAL POINT – refers to the committee tasked to formulate plans and strategies and monitor the implementation of this Code;


(14) GAD MAINSTREAMING – refers to the approach that situates gender equality issues at the center of broad policy decisions, institutional structures and resource allocations and includes women’s views and priorities in making decisions about development goals and processes;


(15) GAD PLAN – refers to the systematically designed set of programs, projects and activities carried out by the city government and barangay councils over period of time to address gender issues and concerns within the different sectors of society and constituents;


(16) GAY – is a term that primarily refers to a homosexual person or the trait of being homosexual;


(17) GENDER – refers to socially constructed difference between men and women of all sexual orientations and gender identities, created artificially, partly through socialization and partly through positive and negative discrimination in the various institutions and structures of society;


(18) GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE – refers to harmful acts directed at an individual based on their gender. It is rooted in gender inequality, the abuse of power and harmful norms;


(20) GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT (GAD) – refers to the development perspective and process that are participatory and empowering, equitable, sustainable, free from violence, respectful of human rights, supportive of self-determination and actualization of human potentials. It seeks to achieve gender equality as a fundamental value that should be reflected in development choices: seeks to transform society ‘s social, economic , and political structures and questions the validity of the gender roles they ascribed to women and men; contends that women are active agents of development and not just passive recipients of development assistance; and stresses the need of women to organize themselves and participate in political processes to strengthen their legal rights;


(21) GENDER AWARENESS – refers to the ability to identify problems arising from gender inequality and discrimination, even if these are not evident on the surface and are “hidden”, or are not part of the general and commonly accepted explanation of what and where the problem lies. Gender awareness means a high level of gender conscientization;


(22) GENDER DIVISION OF LABOR – refers to the allocation of differential tasks, roles, responsibilities and activities to what is considered socially and culturally appropriate;


(23) GENDER-FAIR SOCIETY – refers to a society where women, men and persons with diverse SOGIE share equally in responsibilities, power, authority and decision-making;


(24) GENDER GAP – refers to the gap between and among women, men and persons with diverse SOGIE in terms of how they benefit from education, employment, services and so on;


(25) GENDER NEUTRAL – refers to a person whose qualities and characteristics differ from those which are traditionally associated with a man or a woman;


(26) GENDER RESPONSIVENESS – refers to the systematic attention given to the differences between women, men and persons with diverse SOGIE in society with a view to addressing structural constraints to gender equality;


(27) GENDER SENSITIVITY – refers to the ability to recognize gender issues and to recognize women and persons of diverse SOGIE’s different perceptions and interests arising from their different social position and gender roles;


(28) GENDER STEREOTYPING – refers to society’s perceptions and value systems that instill an image of women as weak, dependent, subordinate, indecisive, emotional and submissive. Men, on the other hand, are strong, independent, powerful, dominant, decisive and logical;


(29) GENDER-BASED ONLINE SEXUAL HARASSMENT – refers to an online conduct targeted at a particular person that causes or likely to cause another mental, emotional or psychological distress, and fear of personal safety, sexual harassment acts including unwanted sexual remarks and comments, threats, uploading or sharing of one’s photos without consent, video and audio recordings, cyberstalking and online identity theft;


(30) GENDER EXPRESSION – refers to the way a person communicates gender identity to others through behaviour, clothing, hairstyles, communication or speech pattern, or body characteristics;


(31) GENDER IDENTITY – refers to the personal sense of identity as characterized, among others, by manner of clothing, inclinations and behaviour in relation to masculine or feminine conventions.  A person may have a male or female identity with the physiological characteristics of the opposite sex, in which case this person is considered transgender;


(31) GENDER QUEER – refers to a person who does not identify themselves belonging to conventional binary categories (i.e., male or female);


(32) HETEROSEXUAL – refers to a person who is emotionally, physically, and sexually attracted to those of the opposite sex;


(33) HOMOPHOBIA – refers to the fear or dislike of gay people;


(34) HOMOSEXUAL – refers to a person who is emotionally, physically and sexually attracted to those of the same sex;


(35) INDIGENOUS PEOPLE – refers to a group of people homogenous societies identified by self-ascription and ascription by others, who have continuously lived, as organized community on communally bounded and defined territory, and who have under claims of ownership since time immemorial, occupied, possessed customs, tradition and other distinctive cultural traits or who have through resistance to political, social and cultural inroads of colonization; non indigenous religions and culture, became historically differentiated from the majority of Filipinos;


(36) KASAMBAHAY – refers to any person engaged in any domestic worker within an employment-relationship whether live-in or live-out arrangement such as but not limited to house, health, yaya, gardener or laundry person.


(36) LESBIAN – is a term that primarily refers to a homosexual person or the trait of being homosexual;


(37) LGBT COMMUNITY – refers to the collective of persons who are male and female homosexuals (lesbians and gays, respectively), bi-sexual and transgender. This, hereinafter, interchangeable with the Persons with Diverse SOGIE;


(38) LOCAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN – refers to the non-government organization composed of fourteen (14) representatives from the Local Government Unit (LGU), Women NGO/PO, Education/Academe, Trade and Industry, Urban Poor, Elderly/Senior Citizen, Muslim Women, Persons with Disability, Indigenous Women, National Council of Women, Persons with Diverse SOGIE, Youth, Health and Media.


(39) MAIL ORDER-BRIDE – refers to a practice where a woman establishes a personal relation with male foreign nationals via mail, electronic or similar means, upon recruitment by an individual or agency for the purpose of exploiting women in guise of marriage;


(40) MARGINALIZATION – refers to a condition where a whole category of people is excluded from useful and meaningful participation in political, economic, social and cultural life;


(41) MARGINALIZED – refers to the basic, disadvantaged or vulnerable persons or groups who are mostly living in poverty and have little or no access to land and other resources, basic social and economic services such as health care, education, water and sanitation, employment and livelihood opportunities, housing, social security, physical infrastructure and the justice system;


          (42) MASCULINE – refers to a person who has qualities and characteristics which are traditionally associated with a man;


(43) MENTAL HEALTH – refers to a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make contribution to his or her community;


(44) NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION (NGOs) – are intermediary organizations between the people and the government; and where the principal interest is to promote the welfare of the poor and disadvantages and where the members do not necessarily belong to such marginalized sector and live in the same community;


(45) PANSEXUAL – refers to a person who is emotionally, physically and sexually attracted to anyone regardless of their sex or gender identity;


(46) PARTNER/WIFE ABUSE AND BATTERING – refers to in any single or sporadic act of violence which shall include the repeated and habitual cyclic pattern as means of intimidation and imposition of the batterer’s will and control over the survivor’s life. It constitutes the following kinds of behaviour but not limited to:


(a) Physical abuse and battering, which includes any form of inflicting wounds, pain, etc. on any part of the woman’s body or the threat of physical violence; and

(b) Sexual abuse and assault, which includes physical attacks on the woman’s breast/genitals or forced sexual activity, accompanied by either physical violence or the treat of physical violence.


(47) PEDOPHILIA – refers to a form of sexual perversion where children are preferred victims for sexual intercourse. It shall include the following acts but shall not be limited to the following:


(a) when the offender shall have sexual intercourse with a boy or girl or child;

(b) when the offender shall have anal intercourse with a boy or girl or child;

(c) when the offender does other sexual acts such as fondling, kissing the private parts of a girl or boy or child or taking photographs/video of the same for pornography; and

(d) when the offender shall have been in possession of pornographic photographs/ videos of the same;


(48) PEOPLE’S ORGANIZATION (PO’s) – are bona fide associations of citizens with demonstrated capacity established to promote the public interest and within an identifiable leadership structure and membership;


(49) PERMANENT PROTECTION ORDERS (PPOs) – refers to protection order issued by the court after notice and hearing;


(50) PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES – refers to those who are suffering from restriction or different abilities, as a result of a mental, physical, or sensory impairment to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being;


(51) PERSONS WITH DIVERSE SOGIE – refers to all individuals, including women and men, whose sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression (SOGIE) may or may not conform with socially constructed gender norms, roles and expectations, and experiences discrimination or marginalization on the basis of SOGIE. This, hereinafter, interchangeable with the LGBT Community;


(52) PORNOGRAPHY – refers to any presentation, through publication, exhibition, cinematography, indecent shows, information technology, or by whatever means, of a person engaged in real or simulated explicit sexual activities or any representation of the sexual parts of a person for primarily sexual purposes;


(53) PROTECTION ORDERS – refers to an order issued under this act for the purpose of preventing further acts of violence against a woman or her child specified in Section 5 (a) and (b) of RA 9262;


(54) PROSTITUTION – refers to any act, transaction, scheme or design involving the use of a person by another, for sexual intercourse or lascivious conduct in exchange for money or any other consideration;


(55) PUBLIC SPACES – refers to streets and alleys, public parks, schools, buildings, malls, bars, restaurants, transportation terminals, public markets, spaces used as evacuation centers, government offices, public utility vehicles as well as private vehicles covered by app-based transport network services and other recreational spaces such as, but not limited to, cinema halls, theaters and spas;


(56) REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH – as defined in the International Conference on Population and Development and World Health Organization, and affirmed in the International Women’s conference in Beijing, refers to a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity in all matters relating to the reproductive system and to its functions and processes i.e. people are able to have a healthy and satisfying sex life in the context of marriage and have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide it, when and how to do so;


(57) SENIOR CITIZENS – refers to those people who are sixty (60) years of age and above;


(58) SEXISM – refers to the system and practice of discriminating against a person on the basis of gender;


(59) SEX-DISAGGREGATED DATA – refers to data that are collected and analysed separately on males and females. It reflects the realities of the lives of women and men inclusive of persons with diverse SOGIE and policy issues relating to gender;


(60) SEX TOURISM – refers to a program organized by travel and tourism-related establishments and individuals which consist of tourism packages or activities utilizing and offering escort and sexual services as enticement for tourist; this includes sexual services and practices offered during rest and recreation periods for the military;


(61) SEXUAL EXPLOITATION – refers to participation by a person in prostitution or the production of pornographic materials as a result of being subjected to threat, deception, coercion, abduction, and force, abuse of authority, debt bondage, and fraud or through abuse of a victim’s vulnerability;


(62) SEXUAL ORIENTATION– refers to the direction of emotional, sexual attraction or conduct.  This can be towards people of the same sex (homosexual orientation), or towards people of both sexes (bisexual orientation), or towards people of the opposite sex (heterosexual orientation);


(63) SMALL FARMERS AND RURAL WORKERS – refers to those directly or indirectly engaged directly or indirectly in small farms and forest areas, workers in commercial farms and plantations, whether paid or unpaid, regular or season-bound. These shall include, but are not limited to, (a) small farmers who own or are still amortizing for lands that is not more than three (3) hectares, tenants, leaseholders and stewards and, (b) rural worker who are either wage earners, self-employed, unpaid family workers directly and personally engaged in agriculture, small-scale mining, handicrafts and other related farm and off-farm activities;


(64) SOCIAL PROTECTION – refers to policies and programs that seek to reduce poverty and vulnerability to risks and enhance the social status and rights of women, especially the marginalized, by promoting and protecting livelihood and employment, protecting against hazards and sudden loss of income and improving people’s capacity to manage risks. Its components are labor market programs, social insurance, social welfare and social safety nets;


(65) SOLO PARENT – refers to those who fall under the category of a solo parent defined under Republic Act No. 8972, otherwise known as the Solo Parents Welfare Act of 2020. Pursuant to Section 3 of the foregoing law, it refers to any other person solely provides parental care and support to a child or children, or any family member who assumes the responsibility of head of family as a result of the death, abandonment, disappearance or prolonged absence of the parents or solo parent.


(66) STALKING – refers to conduct directed at a person involving the repeated visual or physical proximity, non-consensual communication, or a combination thereof that cause or will likely cause a person to fear for one’s own safety or the safety of others, or to suffer emotional distress;


(67) TEMPORARY PROTECTION ORDERS (TPOs) – refers to the protection order issued by the court on the date of filing of the application after ex parte determination that such order should be issued;


(68) TRANSGENDER – an umbrella term for people whose gender identity and or expression differs from what is typically associated with sex assigned at birth;


(69) TRANSPHOBIA – refers to the feeling of dislike of or prejudice against transsexual or transgender people;


(70) URBAN POOR – refers to those residing in urban, slum or blighted areas, with or without the benefit of security of abode, where the income of the head of the family cannot afford in a sustained manner to provide for the family’s basic needs of food, health, education, housing and other essentials in life;


(71) WOMEN EMPOWERMENT – refers to the provision and actualization in decision-making of women in the socio-economic, political and cultural development activities;


(72) WOMEN IN ESPECIALLY DIFFICULT CIRCUMSTANCES (WEDC) – refers to victims and survivors of sexual abuse, illegal recruitment, prostitution, trafficking, armed conflict, women in detention, victims and survivors of rape and incest, and such other related circumstances which have incapacitated them functionally.


(73) WORKERS IN THE FORMAL SECTOR – refer to those who are employed by any person acting directly or indirectly in the interest of an employer in relation to an employee and shall include the government and all its branches, subdivisions and instrumentalities, all government owned and controlled corporations and institutions as well as, non-profit private institutions or organizations;


(74) WORKERS IN THE INFORMAL SECTOR – refers to “self-employed”, occasionally or personally hired, sub-contracted paid and unpaid family workers in household, incorporated and unincorporated enterprises, including home workers, micro entrepreneurs and producers, and operators of sari-sari stores and all other categories who suffer from violation of workers’ rights;